Thursday, September 3, 2020
DATABASE SOLUTIONS (second Edition) THOMAS M CONNOLLY and CAROLYN E BEGG SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 1 Introduction-Review addresses 1. 1List four instances of database frameworks other than those recorded in Section 1. 1. A few models could be: Ã¢â¬ ¢A framework that keeps up segment part subtleties for a vehicle producer; Ã¢â¬ ¢An publicizing organization keeping subtleties all things considered and adverts put with them; Ã¢â¬ ¢A preparing organization keeping course data and participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ subtleties; Ã¢â¬ ¢An association keeping up all business request data. 1. 2Discuss the importance of every one of the accompanying terms: (a)dataFor end clients, this establishes all the various qualities associated with the different items/elements that are of worry to them. (b)database A common assortment of sensibly related information (and a depiction of this information), intended to meet the data needs of an association. (c)database the board framework A product framewo rk that: empowers clients to characterize, make, and keep up the database and gives controlled access to this database. (d)application program A PC program that associates with the database by giving a proper solicitation (regularly a SQL explanation) to the DBMS. (e)data independenceThis is basically the partition of basic document structures from the projects that work on them, likewise called program-information autonomy. (f)views. A virtual table that doesn't really exist in the database yet is created by the DBMS from the hidden base tables at whatever point itÃ¢â¬â¢s got to. These present just a subset of the database that is quite compelling to a client. Perspectives can be redone, for instance, field names may change, and they likewise give a degree of security keeping clients from seeing certain information. 1. 3Describe the fundamental attributes of the database approach.Focus is currently on the information first, and afterward the applications. The structure of the inf ormation is currently kept separate from the projects that work on the information. This is held in the framework list or information word reference. Projects would now be able to share information, which is not, at this point divided. There is likewise a decrease in excess, and accomplishment of program-information autonomy. 1. 4Describe the five parts of the DBMS condition and talk about how they identify with one another. (1)Hardware:The PC system(s) that the DBMS and the application programs run on. This can go from a solitary PC, to a solitary centralized computer, to a system of PCs. 2)Software:The DBMS programming and the application programs, along with the working framework, including system programming if the DBMS is being utilized over a system. (3)Data:The information goes about as a scaffold between the equipment and programming parts and the human segments. As weÃ¢â¬â¢ve as of now stated, the database contains both the operational information and the meta-information (the Ã¢â¬Ëdata about dataÃ¢â¬â¢). (4)Procedures:The directions and decides that oversee the structure and utilization of the database. This may remember guidelines for how to sign on to the DBMS, make reinforcement duplicates of the database, and how to deal with equipment or programming disappointments. 5)People:This incorporates the database planners, database managers (DBAs), application software engineers, and the end-clients. 1. 5Describe the issues with the conventional two-level customer server engineering and examine how these issues were overwhelmed with the three-level customer server design. In the mid-1990s, as applications turned out to be increasingly unpredictable and possibly could be conveyed to hundreds or thousands of end-clients, the customer side of this design offered ascend to two issues: Ã¢â¬ ¢A Ã¢â¬ËfatÃ¢â¬â¢ customer, requiring impressive assets on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s PC to run adequately (assets incorporate plate space, RAM, and CPU power). A not eworthy customer side organization overhead. By 1995, another variety of the customary two-level customer server model seemed to take care of these issues called the three-level customer server design. This new design proposed three layers, each possibly running on an alternate stage: (1)The UI layer, which runs on the end-userÃ¢â¬â¢s PC (the customer). (2)The business rationale and information handling layer. This center level sudden spikes in demand for a server and is regularly called the application server. One application server is intended to serve numerous customers. (3)A DBMS, which stores the information required by the center tier.This level may run on a different server called the database server. The three-level structure has numerous preferences over the conventional two-level plan, for example, Ã¢â¬ ¢A Ã¢â¬ËthinÃ¢â¬â¢ customer, which requires more affordable equipment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Simplified application support, because of bringing together the business rationale for some end-clients into a solitary application server. This wipes out the worries of programming dispersion that are dangerous in the customary two-level customer server design. Ã¢â¬ ¢Added particularity, which makes it simpler to adjust or supplant one level without influencing different levels. Simpler burden adjusting, again because of isolating the center business rationale from the database capacities. For instance, a Transaction Processing Monitor (TPM) can be utilized to lessen the quantity of associations with the database server. (A TPM is a program that controls information move among customers and servers so as to give a predictable situation to Online Transaction Processing (OLTP). ) An extra preferred position is that the three-level engineering maps normally to the Web condition, with a Web program going about as the Ã¢â¬ËthinÃ¢â¬â¢ customer, and a Web server going about as the application server.The three-level customer server design is represented in Figure 1. 4. 1. 6Describe the capacities that ought to be given by an advanced full-scale multi-client DBMS. Information Storage, Retrieval and UpdateAuthorization Services A User-Accessible CatalogSupport for Data Communication Transaction SupportIntegrity Services Concurrency Control ServicesServices to Promote Data Independence Recovery ServicesUtility Services 1. 7Of the capacities depicted in your response to Question 1. 6, which ones do you think would not be required in an independent PC DBMS? Give defense to your answer.Concurrency Control Services Ã¢â¬ just single client. Approval Services Ã¢â¬ just single client, yet might be required if various people are to utilize the DBMS at various occasions. Utility Services Ã¢â¬ restricted in scope. Backing for Data Communication Ã¢â¬ just independent framework. 1. 8Discuss the favorable circumstances and detriments of DBMSs. A few points of interest of the database approach incorporate control of information excess, information consistency , sharing of information, and improved security and uprightness. A few impediments incorporate multifaceted nature, cost, decreased execution, and higher effect of a failure.Chapter 2 The Relational Model Ã¢â¬ Review addresses 2. 1Discuss every one of the accompanying ideas with regards to the social information model: (a)relation A table with sections and columns. (b)attribute A named segment of a connection. (c)domain The arrangement of reasonable qualities for at least one traits. (d)tuple A record of a connection. (e)relational database. An assortment of standardized tables. 2. 2Discuss the properties of a social table. A social table has the accompanying properties: Ã¢â¬ ¢The table has a name that is unmistakable from every single other table in the database. Ã¢â¬ ¢Each cell of the table contains precisely one worth. For instance, it is inappropriate to store a few phone numbers for a solitary branch in a solitary cell. At the end of the day, tables donÃ¢â¬â¢t contain reha shing gatherings of information. A social table that fulfills this property is supposed to be standardized or in first ordinary structure. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢Each section has an unmistakable name. Ã¢â¬ ¢The estimations of a segment are all from a similar area. Ã¢â¬ ¢The request of segments has no centrality. At the end of the day, gave a section name is moved alongside the segment esteems, we can exchange segments. Ã¢â¬ ¢Each record is particular; there are no copy records. The request for records has no noteworthiness, hypothetically. 2. 3Discuss the contrasts between the up-and-comer keys and the essential key of a table. Clarify what is implied by a remote key. How do outside keys of tables identify with competitor keys? Offer guides to delineate your response. The essential key is the up-and-comer key that is chosen to distinguish tuples extraordinarily inside a connection. An outside key is a property or set of qualities inside one connection that coordinates the applicant key of a fe w (perhaps the equivalent) connection. 2. 4What does an invalid represent?Represents an incentive for a section that is right now obscure or isn't material for this record. 2. 5Define the two head respectability rules for the social model. Examine why it is alluring to authorize these guidelines. Substance integrityIn a base table, no section of an essential key can be invalid. Referential integrityIf a remote key exists in a table, either the outside key worth must match a competitor key estimation of some record in its home table or the remote key worth must be completely invalid. Part 3 SQL and QBE Ã¢â¬ Review addresses 3. 1What are the two significant parts of SQL and what capacity do they serve?A information definition language (DDL) for characterizing the database structure. An information control language (DML) for recovering and refreshing information. 3. 2Explain the capacity of every one of the conditions in the SELECT explanation. What limitations are forced on these sta tements? FROMspecifies the table or tables to be utilized; WHEREfilters the lines subject to some condition; GROUP BYforms gatherings of lines with a similar section esteem; HAVINGfilters the gatherings subject to some condition; SELECTspecifies which segments are to show up in the yield; ORDER BYspecifies the request for the yield. 3. What limitations apply to the utilization of the total capacities inside the SELECT proclamation? How do nulls influence the total capacities? A total capacity can be utilized uniquely in the SELECT rundown and in the HAVING cl
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Job of Ã Women in My Antonia Ã The job of the ladies in My Antonia as the displayed workers and laborers in the new network doesn't, surely, mitigate the inquiries of man centric impact offered in the conversations of sexual orientation. Surely, the way that Ã ntonia is denied of the instruction she yearns for but then can't have, in light of the fact that it is she who is answerable for her family's prosperity - 'School is good for young men. I help make this land one great homestead' (94)- - can't be viewed as completely great, on the off chance that we concur that the estimation of instruction is among the best of every single human worth (Woolf 45); and regardless of her fights despite what might be expected, the harsh acknowledgment of rejection brings Ã ntonia to tears. Nonetheless, perceiving the ladies' relationship to the advancement of national culture suggests some elective readings to the ends regularly came to, even as Ã ntonia's penance of her own instruction doesn't reject the commitment sh e makes to American culture, as we will see. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Recognition of country development impacts our perusing of the play of sex in the content. One such occurrence is on account of story authority, which has every now and again been refered to as Jim's man centric subsuming of Ã ntonia, as we have seen. While Jim annexes the my to his translation of Ã ntonia's history, be that as it may, it merits repeating that Ã ntonia is never, actually, Jim's; somewhat, his possessive My mirrors a bombed endeavor at ownership, as his loving advances were solidly rebuked and as the grown-up Ã ntonia never looks for his help or backing. While, the story is proffered through an unknown female storyteller further sabotages Jim's account authority, for his manly assumption to represent Ã ntonia experiences... ...hts the unconstructedness of the American outskirts and the focal job of ladies in fashioning a network, and by augmentation in arranging a youngster national cognizance. Through the disruption of Jim Burden's account authority and a lack of regard for sexual orientation outlines, Cather underscores the constructedness of man centric standards, featuring their superfluity to effective social cognizance. At long last, through Ã ntonia's last presumption of a supporting job, she expect not a detached ladylike distinguishing proof or an abrupt retreat into customary female jobs. Or maybe, Ã ntonia gets symbolic of the ladies who produced the boondocks network in their own picture, mixing it with their own ethnicities and opposing the hegemonizing motivation of the knot of standards we presently know as the American country. Works Cited: Cather, Willa. My Antonia. Boston: Houghton, 1977.
Friday, August 21, 2020
How might you depict the circumstance Levy acquired at the BIDMC? What difficulties did he face? For what reason did past turnaround endeavors fall flat? (4 focuses) Two one of a kind corporate societies, Beth Israel Hospital and Deaconess Hospital converged in 1996 to become Beth Israel Deaconess (BID). To contend with Partners, BID and a couple of different clinics consolidated powers and framed Care Group Systems (CGS). Lacking authority duty, BID was in mayhem and reliably posted working misfortunes in a huge number of dollars every year. Furthermore, albeit prompted on various events, BID was awkward in executing rebuilding plans and thus had exorbitant worker turnover, which brought about poor patient consideration. Compact and master guidance to revamp BID was rarely actualized. In spite of the fact that BID would consent to change, execution was delayed or ignored because of the bunch level of the executives and bureaucratic procedures inside every office, which seemed to work autonomously of each other. Unfit to push ahead, the executives was secured mental jails. Mindless compliance was basic practice for settling on basic business choices, which brought about acceleration of responsibility in proceeding past practices and refusal to acknowledge suggested changes. Offer could be alluded to as egocentric as the association kept up the state of affairs. As President and CEO, Levy was required to make a fast turnaround of the breaking down monetary state of the medical clinic. He was likewise expected to stop the multi year pattern of imperfect usage of rebuilding suggestions. Moreover, he was working under extreme examination and weight from numerous authorities, including the Attorney GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢s Office of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the BID Board of Directors (BOD) and the Board of Directors of the BID parent organization, CGS. How did Levy begin in his new position? What were his goals and what did he achieve 1) before his first day of work? 2) on his first day? 3) during his first week? (4 focuses) Before Levy acknowledged the position, he made conditions for his business. These conditions incorporated that he be recruited before the Hunter Group Report was discharged, that the BOD be extensively diminished in size and that the BOD avoid the everyday tasks of the medical clinic. Indeed, even as he conversed with the hunt group, he knew the obligations and his own capacities. Duty needed to be recruited before the Hunter report with the goal that he could utilize the report in manners that he thought would be ideal. The subsequent condition was to shrivel the BOD from a 44-part gathering to an increasingly reasonable gathering of 18 individuals, which was cultivated only a couple of months after LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s arrangement as CEO. The third state of work, that the BOD stay out of the everyday tasks, indicated that he trusted in a hierarchy of leadership. Toll plainly conveyed any gathering between board individuals and staff required earlier endorsement. On his first day, he sent each worker of the medical clinic a reminder that included: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A guarantee of an open organization Ã¢â¬ ¢ An admonition that the emergency clinic had been given this one final possibility for a turnaround Ã¢â¬ ¢ A guarantee to post the discoveries and proposals of the Hunter Consulting Group Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encouragement to representatives to peruse and offer remarks in regards to the report Ã¢â¬ ¢ A guarantee that changes would be actualized and estimated Ã¢â¬ ¢ Warning of an unavoidable end of a few hundred staff positions in the medical clinic Ã¢â¬ ¢ A guarantee that the staff decreases would be completed as others consciously conceivable and individuals would be treated with nobility and regard Ã¢â¬ ¢ His desire for fruitful turnaround of BID as a result of the workers, their responsibility, their solid feeling of cooperation, and their capacity to succeed In his message, Levy additionally passed on that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ He thought about all staff (not simply key players) to be colleagues Ã¢â¬ ¢ All colleagues must share a shared objective of completing the mission Ã¢â¬ ¢ There is a desire to move quickly Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts had genuine position and authority over the eventual fate of BID Ã¢â¬ ¢ Staff would be heldÃ¢ accountable for their activities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Levy would be open, legitimate and comprehensive with data, even on account of terrible news Ã¢â¬ ¢ High quality consideration was basic to BIDÃ¢â¬â¢s future Ã¢â¬ ¢ Together, the BID group could show the world achievement Duty made a feeling of reality for representatives whom recently had been told misleading statements, falsehoods or nothing about the genuine idea of BIDÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. In doing as such, Levy picked up Ã¢â¬Å"buy-inÃ¢â¬ from workers appreciative that issues were by and large unmistakably recognized by powerful authority. Additionally on his first day, Levy imparted his message to neighborhood news offices, which achieved in addition to other things telling the network that he considered Ã¢â¬Å"buy-inÃ¢â¬ from the staff basic to progress. As indicated by his day by day schedule, Levy spent a lot of his first week meeting with BID staff. Consider the possibility that (anything) was particular about the manner in which Levy approached planning, reporting and executing the recuperation plan. How could he defeat obstruction? (3 focuses) LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of talking with staff likely actuated his capacity to accumulate however much data as could reasonably be expected in regards to the present mind-set and culture. This data was expected to create and execute an arrangement. At first, his recuperation plan needed to incorporate tremendous cost-sparing activities. He had just made way for an enormous lay-off by posting the Hunter Report for all representatives to peruse. Consequently, it was generally simple for him to fire/for all time lay-off 150 individuals before the month's over. All things considered, he was just doing what the specialists suggested. Who could contend with that? Simultaneously, buying controls were executed with an end goal to diminish costs. The following week, he revealed extra vital endeavors. His arrangement was three-overlay: recapture a notoriety for quality patient mind and keep up a scholarly status; receive a portion of the suggestions of the Hunter Group Report, executing change; and, examine why past rebuild plans fizzled and why this new one would work. Another of LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s implementationÃ¢ plans was to guarantee low and convey high. At the end of the day, he knew the significance of complying with time constraints and plans by being traditionalist and not over-assessing. This training is regularly alluded to as Ã¢â¬Å"sand-baggingÃ¢â¬ and accepted to be a helpful instrument. LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s plan was not to be tricky; rather, it is a method for keeping forward force by conveying uplifting news. How levied tackle the issue of the BIDMCÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"curious powerlessness to decide?Ã¢â¬ (3 focuses) It was not until Levy came in and chatted with the specialists and staff, truly tuning in to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s issues and worries that change could occur. Toll understood that the way of life of BID assumed a huge job in the association. Individuals responded and played out their occupations thinking about how they had played out their employments previously. The present structure and pecking order characterized who the boss were and the significance of their jobs. They were up to speed in this clairvoyant jail. Duty needed to assist them with conquering it by ensuring they understood that they were not off-base and that they simply should have been available to change. Duty attempted to get to the underside of the human feelings for these boss and let them see the advantage of changes. He made a point to give credit yet in addition anticipated outcomes and acknowledgment of the new key arrangement. While there is no sign regarding which faculty were terminated/laid-off, it was obv ious to the rest of the staff that Levy was in control and that Ã¢â¬Å"slackersÃ¢â¬ would not go on without serious consequences. This is a ground-breaking help (yet by means of dread) to dispense with opposition. Additionally before Levy, it appeared that council gatherings regularly brought about mindless obedience. Toll realized that the boss were generally engaged with those gatherings, and that there was presently an enormous need to get results from those gatherings. Before, nobody made some noise at gatherings. Numerous members stayed silent rather than really saying what they thought. Staff individuals were hesitant to cause trouble. When Levy went ahead board, numerous choices and changes were actualized by means of controlling advisory groups rather than from the boss. This was a noteworthy change in the various leveled structure. Not, at this point did all choices and thoughts come straight down from the manager in the pinnacle. This change permitted staff individuals to get included and present thoughts. Ultimately,Ã¢ it would be staff individuals whom had a key job in the usage of turnaround plans. This Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ of the staff drove them to have less opposition towa rd change. In depicting his initiative style, Levy discusses the CEO as instructor. How has he characterized that job? Why has he decided to concentrate on it? What abilities does it require? (3 focuses) LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s authority style is a vital facilitator, through creating worker proprietorship by enlightening the idea of the issue and looking for their association in discovering arrangements. Duty trusted it basic to construct a center supervisory crew that is as per the arrangement, strategic qualities and who are eager to accept chance in grasping change. The CEO job is to help the supervisory group and evacuate the individuals who are obstructionists. The result is improved dynamic and responsibility. He utilizes peer pressure as a responsibility apparatus so there is open affirmation of duty regarding explicit undertakings. By diverting remarks from naysayers, Levy puts the onus on others to give an answer for issues. Furthermore, Levy comprehends the elements of each gathering and what can and can't be cultivated in each. Toll utilized a HR see in evaluating different circumstances. He utilized this system while settling on a larger part of his choices. He esteemed criticism from his representatives and kept them side by side of appropriate data, which resu
Saturday, June 6, 2020
YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve signed with a publisher or youÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen to self-publish. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve been through the edits, the formatting; youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made the changes, acquired the artwork and published. Now what? One of the most difficult and most overlooked aspects of making it as an author is marketing. Unless you can promote your book yourself, then youre not going to sell any copies, the online algorithms are not going to favour you and the book stores are not going to drag their stock of your book out from the back room. There is no easy way to promote yourself in this game, but there are a few things you can do that will increase your chances of being a success. Just make sure you work with stable, static budgets and never increase these to account for high PR quotes. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford it now, donÃ¢â¬â¢t assume you will then and never let the promise of big exposure send you into the red. The follow tips can also help you to stay on course. 4. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be Scared to Give it Away One of the easiest ways to promote your book when you have self-published is to give it away. The more people that download your book, the higher you will rank with the Amazon algorithm, the more youÃ¢â¬â¢ll feature in the Ã¢â¬Å"Also BoughtÃ¢â¬ section and the more copies you will sell when the free promo ends. This is a tactic that continues to be shunned by many self-published authors who insist they canÃ¢â¬â¢t give something away for free when they worked so hard on it. But at what cost? Would you prefer to give 1,000 copies away so that you can sell 10,000, or would you prefer to give none away and only sell a handful? This is not as easy if you are traditionally published as itÃ¢â¬â¢s not up to you, but you can still take advantage of the benefits that come from shifting a huge number of books in a very short space of time. These days all major publishers work with discount operators like BookBub. They pay for placements in exchange for promotion of a heavily discounted book and in return they get thousands of purchases. Your share of each sale will be very low, if anything at all, but if you do all you can to promote that discounted period and to get as many purchases as possible, then your book will be given a huge boost within the Amazon algorithm and that will help you to remain in the bestseller lists when the promo ends. Just remember, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t rely on BookBub alone. They run dozens of promotions a day and all of those books canÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed. Your goal is to signup with other discount providers and to run as many coordinated promotions as you can. You can also run giveaways on social media and on Goodreads, either by purchasing books yourself with your author discount, or by encouraging your publisher to run them for you. 3. Focus on Targeted Ads Not everyone reads books, not everyone buys books, and even if you find a community of readers, how many of those are interested in your genre? The worst mistake you can make when marketing you book is to focus on generalised marketing, as youÃ¢â¬â¢re offering a niche product to a general market and paying for the pleasure. Instead, find a way to target specific demographics. And that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just limited to book clubs and other book related subjects. In fact, if you write in a niche genre you may be better off targeting a community dedicated to film or TV. This is especially true for genres like horror and romance, where youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find that a lot of people who devote themselves to horror/romance films and movies will also happily read books in that genre. 2. Get Some Local Publicity Contrary to what you might think, local bookshops are not very willing to do book signings and big events with unknown authors, even if they have been published by a traditional publisher. This is especially true if you live in a big city, as they get requests like that all the time and simply canÃ¢â¬â¢t provide the same level of service to so many authors. To get around this, you need to get some local publicity on your side. Create a press release and contact the local press. Get a PR company on your side and see if they can help you for a reasonable amount of money. Once you have that PR on your side then you can contact your local book shops and show it to them. This will prove to them that you are known in the community and that you understand how to market yourself. After all, their goal is to sell books and get more people through the doors. If they believe that you can help them to do that then they will be happy to work with you. 1. Get Reviews Reviews are essential, from the big review sites and magazines, to customer reviews on Amazon and other online booksellers. To an extent the same can be said about Goodreads, especially now that it is owned by Amazon. You can also get reviews from smaller review blogs. In our experience, these rarely generate any sales or any real interest, but sometimes those bloggers leave their reviews on other sites and they can also help to get more entries for your book in Google and other search engines. To get these reviews you need to start sending free copies of your book. Your publisher will do this for you if you have one, although they may need you to gather the names of reviewers. If you are self-published then youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to put those Google skills to good use, looking for bloggers, reviewers and even readers who will accept an ARC in exchange for their opinions. They will all want physical copies of the book, but this can get expensive and some bloggers will simply not be worth the cost. So, try to prioritise who gets a physical copy and give the others an eBook.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Discrimination and Tattoos In the past, people used to see people with tattoos as lacking in character and work ethic. In light of the growing popularity of tattoos in the modern age, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions have stayed away from that. While the United Kingdom may not be as well known for heavily tattooed people as other countries in the world, the popularity in the United Kingdom is growing. Tattoos do not affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character or work ethic; therefore, should not be discriminated against in the United Kingdom. When most people see a person that is heavily tattooed, they do not see the typical hard working family man. They see an inked up delinquent or a drug addict. What they do not think about is that many people love to expressÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the United Kingdom, there are no laws protecting employees from employer discrimination on the sole basis of body art. During the hiring process, employers can have the most qualified applicant possible with t attoos, but under current United Kingdom law, they can hire a less qualified person who has no tattoos. This practice is completely legal without being considered a form of discrimination. Employers in the United Kingdom stigmatize tattooed applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ and/or employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work ethic, believing that they will not work as hard and send a negative image to their clients (Michael). This kind of discrimination is unjust and unethical. The only way a person can challenge this type of discrimination is if they are directly religious and even then, the employee would have to go through a strenuous process of actually proving it has direct religious ties. With the popularity of tattoos in the United Kingdom growing rapidly, many employers are being forced to cut back on their prejudicial opinions of tattoos. According to the BBC, roughly twenty percent of the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s population has at least one tattoo. Among young adults, the numbers rise to roughly thirty- three percent (Kelly). Some companies will tolerate tattoos with the exception of above the neck and hand tattoos, which are completely understandable in an interpersonal business that involves customer service. Still, the problem lies in the professions where employees do not make directShow MoreRelatedTo Tattoo or Not To Tattoo Essay566 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageshave a tattoo on some part of our bodies to display for the admiration of all who see it ? Obviously tattoos are a fashion of our generation which none of us hesitates to drill their bodies for. Not only can a tattoo decorate our flesh,but it can give us a little splash of the celebrity life- for do not all celebrities have tattoos from head to foot? Gone are the days when criminals and ancient saliors were the main market for tattoos- now they are extreamly elegant. Not only this,but tattoos haveRead MorePersuasive Essay On Tattoos And Tattoos869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhere everyone finds out what is in style, to be like everyone e lse. Most people feel the need to follow others because of what they see in someone elses life such as tattoos and piercing. Just because someone has something that catches peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention it most likely doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it will have the same result on you. Regarding tattoos and piercing, people need to be aware of infections, the holes they leave behind and the money invested in a change. The body design is always seen different by everyoneRead More The Tattoo Process and Significance Of Tattoos Essay1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSignificance of Tattoos In the past, tattoos were commonly thought of as trashy or bad. One would often relate them to bikers, rock and heavy metal stars, pirates, or gangsters. That has considerably changed over the years. According to Swan, In 2003 approximately 40 million Americans reported to have at least one tattoo. Todays culture is still fascinated with tattooing. In the 1990s, tattoos were the sixth fastest growing retail behind the Internet, paging services, computer and cellRead MoreTattoos Essay1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMasten, Martin, 2000; FrederickBradley, 2000). Tattoos have been around for years they were once used to identify slaves, seaman, criminals and others who made their association to a particular group. Tattoos have always had a negative connotation attached to it. There seemed to be a shift in popularity as Americans seen more and more celebrities sporting tattoos. At one point, tattoos were seen as a fad or a sign of rebellion for some. Tattoos no longer were seen as bad or deviant, but as a formRead MoreTattoos Essay812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe history of tattoos, how tattoos are made, and the impact of tattoos in society. Research shows that people have been experimenting with tattoos for many years, as early as c. 2000 B.C. The ancient Egyptians were the ones to help popularize the idea of tattooing. Tattoos have many meanings behind them depending on the culture. Such as for the Ancient Asian cultures tattoos were to help sustain strong physical health. Another example would be the military personnel who get a tattoo to show theirRead MoreTattoo Essay712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Do tattoos identify a person and who they are? I myself have tattoos, many people have tattoos for all different reasons they may stand for something important in their lives could be cultural or religious people feel that tattoos are a symbol of art. Judging a person on his or her tattoos is like judging a book by its cover or judging a person based on their race. The number of Americians getting tattoos is growing. More than one in ten Americians now have at least one tattoo(E 2015). butRead MoreTattoos Essay989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTattoos are common place in society today. No longer are they only on bikers or bad guys; now they are on doctors, lawyers and even pastors. Tattoos no longer determine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character or who they are. They are a way of expressing oneself and showing experiences in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life or expressions of meaningful things. Even older people are gettingÃ ink put on them. For as much as they are accepted in society, they are also still looked down upon. Having tattoos can affect being hired for a jobRead More The History of Tattoos Essays2153 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages A tattoo is a permanent mark or design made on the skin by a process of pricking and ingraining an indelible pigment into the punctures or by raising scars. This is the definition; however, to many a tattoo has more of an abstract, personal meaning. Tattoos symbolize individuality, experiences, status, religion, and art. They come in many shapes, sizes, colors, designs, and styles. The history behind the tattoo is just as fascinating as the tattoo itself. Whether flaunted or hidden, soughtRead MoreTattoos in the Workplace Essay916 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTattoos in the Workplace Christina Responsive-Final Draft April 4, 2013 There is always a lot of controversy when it comes to tattoos. Most people instantly have an opinion of them; they are either for or against tattoos. What is not realized is the fact that there is a ton of time and effort put into the sketching and placement of a tattoo. People tattoo themselves as a way of self-expression and liberation. Unfortunately, in the business world, most executives do not believe there is suchRead MoreTattoos and Society Essay1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespresent themselves to the world. 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Question: Discuss about the Enterprise Risk Management to Controls. Answer: Introduction: In the given case Barnett v Harris Scarfe Australia Pty Ltd , the people who had a fundamental role to play were the operator of the trolley and the management of the company. According to section 5 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2012 (SA) (WHS), a person who conducts an undertaking or a business alone or with others shall be considered as a person conducting a business or an undertaking under this Act (Work and Health Safety Act (SA) 2012). As per section 7 of the Act, the term worker includes an employee, contractor or subcontractor, a trainee, student gaining work experience or a volunteer (Xiang et al. 2014). The person who is responsible for conducting business or undertaking is also considered as a worker if such person carries out any work in the undertaking or business as an individual. As per section 18 of the Act, the employers and the employee or the operator in this case, had been imposed with the duties to ensure health and safety within the workplace. They are responsible for ensuring such health and safety that was reasonable for them to exercise at any particular time (Chmiel et al. 2017). According to section 20 of the Act, persons who are responsible for control or management of a Harris Scarfe Australia, are obligated to ensure health and safety of the workplace (Work and Health Safety Act (SA) 2012). It is the responsibility of the persons and management to ensure that the means of exiting and entering the workplace or anything arising from the workplace must not result in risks with respect to the safety and health of any person as far as it is practicable for them to do the same. The management is not only responsible for ensuring safety and health of the employees or the workers of the organization but is also accountable for injuries that might result from anything that arises from the workplace (Cooper and Quick 2017). According to section 28 of the Act, a worker is required to take reasonable care for his own safety and health care. The operator was also responsible for ensuring the health and safety of the other persons within the workplace including the customers who were present within the workplace. The worker should ensure that his conduct or omission does not have any adverse impact on the health and safety of other persons within the workplace by complying with the reasonable policy and procedures of the organization that is applicable for the workers. According to section 29 of the Act, the other persons who are not conferred with any duty within the workplace must also take reasonable care to ensure his or her own health and safety and prohibit from conducting in a way that may have an adverse impact upon the other persons (Shea et al. 2016). Essential elements of the WHS Management system A system which deals with the various management activities such as organizational structure, responsibilities, planning activities, resources and processes that are used to develop and implement, review and maintain the OHS [WHS] policy is known as the OHS WHS Management System. The management system aims at improving the WHS performance by entailing practices, processes and activities that are in compliance with the law. The OHS management system is in compliance with the AS/NZS 4804 that provides performance standards for the systems, supporting and principle techniques. The most essential elements that must be present in the management system include the following: Commitment and policy- an organization must define its WHS policy and commit sufficient resources ensuring the success of management system; planning- an effective planning that addresses the resources and responsibilities required to achieve the policy objectives and statement; implementation- an effective implementation of the planned mechanisms to attain the policy objectives of the organization; Measurement and assessment- the use of performance indicators is useful in monitoring reviewing and evaluating the performance of the organization in accordance with the objectives, policy and targets. It is also important to implement corrective action and to identify the improvement. review and improvement of the management systems- the organization must review and strive to make continuous improvements in the organizational strategies; In the given case, the Logistics Manager of Harris Scarfes confessed that there were no procedures and effective polices with respect to stock handling and the movement procedure of the same. The organization lacked proper planning with respect to the policies and commitments to ensure performance of the organization (Baum 2016). The organization did not focus on implementing effective mechanism and processes to ensure health and safety of the workers and other persons who are not workers within the workplace such as the customers. They failed to make sure that maneuvering the loaded stock trolleys can be safely operated while public were present within the workplace (Haimes 2015). Further, the employees were not provided with adequate training or instructions with respect to the loading and maneuvering of the stock trolleys throughout the store. The organization lacked proper assessment and measurement procedures as well, which must be present to assess and review the performance of the workers. Consequently, in the absence of such adequate measurement and assessment procedures, the organization failed to review whether the stock trolleys were operating safely without giving rise to any risk of harm that may be caused to any worker or any other person within the workplace (Lam 2014). The trolleys were being overloaded with stocks to the extent that it was blocking the front view of the operator. It was due to the overloading of the trolley that had resulted in the incident where Mrs. Harvey was injured. Consultation is a two-way process between the management and the workers where they communicate with the each other regarding any issues that they face within the organization. The workers usually communicate about the issues that they face within the organization and the employers or the health and Safety representative consult with the employees about their concerns and the procedures or processes that should be used to address such issues. According to section 47 of the WHS Act, the Person controlling business undertaking (PCBU) must consult the workers who are entitled to carry out work for the PCBU and are likely to have direct impact of any matter with respect to health and safety in workplace. The procedures of consultation that has been agreed by the workers for consultation, the consultation shall be done in accordance with such procedures. Section 48 of the WHS Act states the nature of consultation to be given to the workers. The workers must be provided with information that is relevant to the health and safety of the workplace, the workers are given adequate opportunity to raise any issues or express their views with respect to any health, and safety related matter within the workplace. This is an effective consultation procedure for any organization as it enables the employees to take active participation in the decision-making process of the organization. This consultation procedure is also effective because it also permits the employers to consider the views of the workers and they are provided with advice regarding the consequence of the consultation within due time. Section 48(2) of the WHS Act states that if the health and safety representative consults with the workers, they must do so while identifying the hazards. They may be consulted while proposing changes that may affect the WHS workers. In the given scenario, the most suited form of consultation procedure would have been the consultation process involving Health and Safety Representative. This procedure would have been effective in the absence of the adequate training of the employees or the other workers. The Health and safety representative would have discussed about the risks and the hazards that may arise from the stock trolleys while the workers use them when there is public within the workplace (Glendon, Clarke and McKenna 2016). The representatives would have informed them about any changes proposed to minimize such risks and ensured their health and safety. The operator would have been provided with information that the trolley should not be overloaded to block the sight of the operator. Further, the organization did not monitor the trolleys and neither assesses the risk of harm that may arise from overloading of the trolleys and using them while there are public within the workplace. Identification of risk Assessment of risk Control of Risk overloading of trolleys Blocked the line of sight of the operator Proper training and clear signs for not overloading the trolley and maneuvering of trolleys in public areas Trolley used while customers were present in the store Risk of injury likely to be caused to the customers as was caused to the customers Installation of warning signs or setting up of entry permits to operate within the work systems No policies and procedures for stock handling The operators dealing with stock handling would be cause injuries to the customers Effective policies and procedures with respect to such stock handling should be present within the workplace Table 1: Risk Assessment (Source: created by author) As per regulation 34 of the Work Health and Safety Regulations 2012 (SA), it was important to identify the hazards that was present within the workplace of Harris Scarfe Australia, and it is important to assess such risks to evaluate an effective risk control with a view to minimize or eliminate the risk. However, the organization admitted that there were no policies and procedures within the organization and risk assessment of the hazards were not conducted which prevented the company from identifying the risk of overloading and the maneuvering of the truck when there were public on the floor. Section 36 of the Regulation states that the assessed risks may be controlled either by eliminating, substituting, isolating, engineering, using of administrative and personal protective equipment. Under the circumstances of the case, the most appropriate way of controlling the risk arising from the use of stock trolleys is the use of administrative control measures, which includes the following measures: setting up of entry permits for the operation of the trolleys be it loading of stocks or maneuvering of the trolleys, that is, they should be used before the customers arrive at the store; warnings or signs that would infirm the customers and other workers as well about the maneuvering of the trolleys in case it is necessary to be operated while the customers are on the store floor; adequate training should have been provided to the operators of the trolleys regarding the loading and maneuvering the trolleys while there is public in the store. Pre-start checks should be commenced before operating the trolley system. If these measures are implemented effectively in the organization, it is expected that similar incidents shall not take place within the organization in the future. The company should include risk register for recording risks and action planning which would enable the management to monitor and review whether the control measures are being used with due diligence to prevent any injury within the workplace. Further, workplace inspection, internal audit should be conducted to ensure the control tools are being implemented effectively. Furthermore, consultation with the employees by the Health and safety representatives would enhance communication with the employees; besides, monitoring of hazard reports shall also enable the organization to monitor and review the compliance of the organization with the WHS legislation in ensuring health and safety of the employees. From the case, it can be inferred that effective policy, commitments and adequate training of employees with respect to operation of any systems and machines within the organization is mandatory. Similarly, it is equally important for any organization to conduct risk assessments to identify the hazards and devise appropriate control and monitoring measures to ensure compliance of the organization with such policies and procedures to ensure health and safety within the organizational workplace. While ensuring safety and health, it is imperative to take into consideration the following relevant matters, which are as follows: the risk or hazard that is likely to take place within the workplace; the extent of harm that might result from such risk or harm; the knowledge possessed by any concerned person regarding the risks or the hazard and ways of eliminating or reducing such hazard or risks; Reference List Barnett v Harris Scarfe Australia Pty Ltd  SAIRC 54 Baum, F., 2016.The new public health(No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press. Chmiel, N., Fraccaroli, F. and Sverke, M. eds., 2017.An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective. 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